Idaho, Utah and Wyoming Coronavirus Vaccine FAQ
Sterling Urgent Care has developed this FAQ to answer commonly asked questions about coronavirus vaccine and vaccinations in Idaho, Utah and Wyoming. The information contained in this FAQ represents the latest guidance and findings from the Centers for Disease Control, the Untied States Food and Drug Administration and health departments in Idaho, Utah and Wyoming.
For state-specific information on COVID vacinations, please see our state-specific pages:
Updated May 2022
Answers to Common Coronavirus Vaccine Questions
What is the coronavirus vaccine? UPDATED JANUARY 2022
Coronavirus vaccines have been developed to reduce the risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2, the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued emergency use authorizations in the United States for a two-shot vaccine developed by Moderna and a single-shot vaccine developed by Janssen Pharmaceuticals and distributed by Johnson & Johnson. A two-shot vaccine developed by Pfiizer/BioNTech has full FDA approval.
As of December 2021, anyone over the age of 12 can receive the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. A pediatric version of this vaccine has an Emergency Use Authorization for children ages 5 to 11.
The Moderna vaccine has FDA Approval for people over 18 as of January 2022.
The Janssen/Johnson & Johnson vaccine is authorized for people over the age of 18. The Centers for Disease Control issued a preferential recommendation for the Moderna and Pfizer/BioNTech vaccines in December 2021. Individuals may still choose to get the Johnson & Johnson vaccine if they prefer it.
Is the COVID-19 vaccine approved by the FDA? UPDATED JANUARY 2022
As of August 23, 2021, the Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine is approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in people over the age of 16.
As of January 31, 2022, the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine is approved by the FDA for use in people over the age of 18.
The COVID-19 vaccine from Johnson & Johnson has been given an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) by the FDA.
The Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine has an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for adolescents ages 12 to 15. This vaccine also has an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) at a lower dose for children ages 5 to 11.
Why Did the CDC Change the Interval Between Initial Doses of Some Vaccines?
In February 2022, the United States Centers for Disease Control (CDC) updated its guidance for the timing of initial vaccinations with the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna. People between the ages of 12 and 64 with healthy immune systems are encouraged to wait 8 weeks between doses. All others, including children and people at any age with compromised immune systems, should follow the original guidelines of 3 weeks between doses for the Pfizer/BioNtech vaccine and 4 weeks for the Moderna vaccine.
The CDC made these changes in response to new clinical data from Canada, which extended the time between initial doses to as much as 16 weeks in 2021 when vaccine demand outpaced supply. Several studies of Canada’s vaccination and infection rates found that waiting longer provided a stronger overall immune response and reduced the chance of myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart, in males ages 12 to 39. Males in this age group with healthy immune systems are encouraged to wait the full 8 weeks between their initial coronavirus vaccine doses, as this was found to further reduce the already rare chance of developing heart inflammation.
Who Should Get COVID-19 Vaccine Booster Shots? UPDATED MARCH 2022
The CDC has authorized initial booster shots for everyone over the age of 16 who received a Pfizer/BioNTech vaccination 5 months after the initial two-dose vaccination.
Individuals between the ages of 11 and 17 who received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine should get an initial booster 5 months after the initial two-dose vaccination.
Adults over the age of 50 should get a second booster 4 months after the initial booster.
Immunocompromised people over the age of 11 should get a second booster 4 months after the initial booster.
The CDC recommends an initial booster shot for everyone over the age of 18 who received a Moderna vaccination 5 months after the initial two-dose vaccination.
Adults over the age of 50 and anyone over the age of 18 who is immunocompromised should get a second booster 4 months after the initial booster.
Johnson & Johanson/Janssen
Anyone who received a Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine should receive a booster 2 months after the initial dose. The FDA recommends a second boster with an MRNA vaccine, either Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna, 4 months after the booster. This recommendation applies to everyone who w as vaccinated with the Johnson & Johnson vaccines, regardless of age or medical conditions.
Can I Mix and Match Boosters?
FDA has authorized so-called “mix and match” boosters from different manufacturers only for those over the age of 17.
- If you received the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine, you can get a Moderna booster or a Pfizer/BioNTech booster.
- If you received the Moderna vaccine, you can get a Pfizer/BioNTech booster or a Moderna booster.
- If you received the Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) vaccine, you can receive a Janssen, Moderna or Pfizer/BioNTech booster.
Note that Moderna booster doses should be a half dose. Please let your vaccine provider know that you are receiving a booster. The simplest way to do this is to present your vaccination card when you arrive for a booster shot.
Individuals ages 11-17 are only eligible for the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine. They should receive a booster dose 5 months after the initial 2-dose vaccination.
What Is the Preferential Recommendation from the CDC?
In December 2021, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC) issued a preferential recommendation for the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna two-dose mRNA vaccines over the single-dose Johnson & Johnson vaccine, which uses a modified adenovirus to teach the immune system to recognize SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19.
Extensive review of clinical data found a rare but dangerous illness known as Thrombosis with Thrombocytopenia Syndrome (TTS) in people who had received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine. TTS causes a combination of blood clots and bleeding that is difficult to treat and may be fatal. This illness was most commonly observed in women ages 30 to 40, but it also ocurred in men.
No link or causal relationship between the Johnson & Johnson vaccine and TTS has been found or is implied in the CDC’s decision. In issuing the preferential recommendation, the CDC called attention to a potentially higher risk of TTS in people who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine compared with those who received mRNA vaccines.
Individuals should discuss these risks and their medical histories with a doctor when deciding which vaccine to choose.
Who can get the coronavirus vaccine? UPDATED NOVEMBER 2021
- All people over the age of 18 in the United States, regardless of immigration status, can receive the Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines for free.
- Adolescents ages 12 to 15 can receive the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine for free.
- Children ages 5 to 11 can receive a lower dose of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine for free.
Should anyone avoid the COVID vaccine? UPDATED MAY 2021
No vaccine is currently authorized for children under the age of 12. Children between the ages of 12 and 17 can receive the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine.
People who have had allergic reactions to vaccines in the past should inform the person adminstering the vaccine before they are vaccinated. As a rule, people with past allergic reactions will be monitored for side effects for 30 minutes instead of 15 minutes. People who have experienced anaphylaxis or other severe vaccine reactions are advised to get vaccinated at a hospital or health clinic rather than a mass-vaccination site.
As of late April 2021, the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recommends the authorized COVID-19 vaccines for women who are pregnant, trying to become pregnant or breastfeeding. Current monitoring by the CDC and clinical studies from drugmakers have found no significant concerns for pregnant women or their children. You should discuss vaccination with your doctor to determine if it is right for you.
There have been rare occurrences, approximately 1 in 1 million, of a blood-clotting disorder in people who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine in the United States. These reactions have been most common in premenopausal women. You should discuss any concerns you have about specific vaccines with a health care professional to determine which vaccine is the best choice for you.
Do COVID vaccinations cause infertility?
No COVID vaccinations cause infertility. This rumor never applied to male fertility.
A German epidemiologist asked European regulators to delay approval of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine on the grounds that the spike protein in the vaccine shared some characteristics with a protein in the placenta, which might cause women to have difficulty conceiving.
Data from clinical studies and millions of vaccinations has found no cause for concern. Women who receive the vaccine are capable of conceiving and carrying healthy babies to term. Concerns over fertility should not prevent women from getting these vaccines. They were authorized for use in pregnant women by the Centers for Disease Control in late April 2021.
Similar vaccines have been used in cancer treatment for more than a decade, and to treat MERS, Zika and Ebola in recent clinical trials. No impact on fertility has been found in any of the past studies.
Were coronavirus vaccines rushed to market?
Coronavirus vaccines were not rushed to market. There has been considerable confusion about these vaccines, the science behind them and Operation Warp Speed.
Messenger RNA, or MRNA, vaccines have been around for more than a decade. Originally developed as cancer treatments, they have since been used to develop vaccines for MERS (a close cousin of COVID-19), Ebola and Zika. In treatment settings and clinical trials, these vaccines have proven to be safe, even in very ill people.
The technology to make coronavirus vaccines existed and simply needed a genetic sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which was released in January 2020. Vaccine development and clinical trials began shortly after the genetic sequence of the virus was known.
Operation Warp Speed provided money for companies like Johnson & Johnson, Moderna and Pfizer to manufacture millions of doses of vaccine before it was authorized by the Food and Drug Administration. Typically, drug companies cannot afford to make vaccines until they are approved. By removing this financial risk, Operation Warp Speed allowed the United States to have immediate access to vaccines as soon as they were authorized, instead of waiting another year for manufacturing to ramp up.
If the vaccines had not been authorized, the stockpiles would have been destroyed. The United Kingdom enacted a similar program with AstraZeneca to speed delivery of their vaccine once it was authorized.
The time savings only occurred after the vaccines were authorized. Full clinical trails were conducted for all vaccines authorized in the United States, and a few of those vaccines never made it past Phase 1 of their trials.
If I get a COVID vaccine, do I still have to wear a mask and social distance? UPDATED MAY 2021
New guidelines for fully vaccinated people were released by the CDC in late April 2021. Those who are fully vaccinated:
- Do not need to wear a mask outdoors except in very crowded areas
- May gather indoors with other fully vaccinated people without masks
- Opt out of regular COVID-19 testing as long as they are asymptomatic
- May travel without quarantine; note that proof of vaccination may be required by travel providers and at your destination
- Refrain from testing and quarantine after a known exposure, depending on circumstances where they live and work
Vaccinated people should remember that there is still a very small chance that they can catch and transmit COVID-19 even after getting a COVID vaccine. Care should be taken around unvaccinated people, particularly children and those at a high risk for complications.
What is the difference between FDA Authorization and FDA Approval? UPDATED OCTOBER 2021
An FDA-approved vaccine is one that has been thoroughly researched with its short- and long-term effects documented. Flu vaccines, mumps vaccines and TDAP vaccines are all FDA authorized and safe for use in the overwhelming majority of people.
An FDA-authorized vaccine has not been fully studied and documented, but it is believed that it will not harm people and that providing it will protect public health. Emergency Use Authorizations are commonly issued by the FDA when a clinical study shows strong results and minimal side effects.
The CDC strongly recommends any available COVID-19 vaccine for pregnant women, who are at a significantly higher risk of severe complications, including fetal harm, from COVID-19. Emergency Use Authorizations have also been granted for the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines for people between the ages of 12 and 17. Clnical trials are ongoing for children under 12; an EUA for the Pfizer vacciine in kids 5 to 11 is expected in Fall 2021, and for kids 2-4 in Winter 2022.
People with a history of severe allergies, including anaphylaxis, are advised to speak to their physicians before getting the COVID-19 vaccine.
Why should I get the coronavirus vaccine?
COVID-19, the disease caused by the SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, can be fatal for people of all ages. Some people who get the virus never get symptoms but are still able to infect others. By getting vaccinated, you reduce the risk of catching COVID-19 and spreading it to others. You will be helping your community dramatically reduce the number of infections so that restrictions on gathering and activities can be lifted in the future.
Does the coronavirus vaccine work?
In clinical trials, the Pfizer/BioNTech coronavirus vaccine was more than 90% effective at preventing infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. The vaccine also prevented people who were infected from developing the most severe symptoms.
At this point in time, we do not know if these results will continue as millions of people are vaccinated. Most epidemiologists expect the effectiveness of the coronavirus vaccine to be a bit lower than the results from clinical trials, but it is still expected to provide good protection against infection and serious illness.
Will the COVID vaccine make me immune to coronavirus?
Vaccines very rarely offer full immunity to any virus. During clinical trials, the COVID vaccine from Pfizer and BioNTech has been found to be 90% effective at preventing COVID-19 infections. It also reduced the severity of symptoms in people who were infected. The vaccine should be considered good protection against the worst outcomes from a coronavirus infection, but it does not offer total immunity.
How long does the coronavirus vaccine last? UPDATED MAY 2021
Current research shows that the vaccine is effective for 6 months and may be effective for longer periods. Research is currently underway to see if a booster given at 1 year improves effectiveness. Because COVID-19 and the vaccines are new, there is no way to know how long the vaccines will work, but researchers believe they may provide some level of long-term protection.
I have been diagnosed with COVID-19. Do I still need the coronavirus vaccine?
Health officials recommend waiting for 90 days (3 months) after a COVID-19 diagnosis before getting the coronavirus vaccine. The vaccine is recommended even for those who have been diagnosed with COVID, as there is little known about how long antibodies from a COVID-19 infection last. Additional data should be released to address this question in the coming months.
How does the coronavirus vaccine work?
The coronavirus vaccine stimulates the creation of antibodies that can identify and destroy the spike protein that SARS-CoV-2 uses to invade human cells. The vaccine does this by exposing your immune system to simulated spike proteins made from Messenger RNA (MRNA), a simple genetic molecule.
There is no active coronavirus, weakened coronavirus or fragments of coronavirus in any vaccine currently authorized for use in the United States by the United States Food and Drug Administration. You cannot become infected with coronavirus by the vaccine.
Why is the COVID vaccine kept at very cold temperatures?
The Pfizer and BioNTech COVID vaccine must be kept at temperatures of -94 degrees Fahrenheit or lower. This is because the Messenger RNA (MRNA) that stimulates the human immune response is very fragile and will break down quickly in the vaccine solution at warmer temperatures. This does not happen in the human body.
Is the COVID vaccine safe? UPDATED MAY 2021
The Centers for Disease Control, after reviewing data from clinical trials and vaccinations across the United States, has issued an Emergency Use Authorization for the Pfizer/BioNTech, Moderna and Johnson & Johnson vaccines for all people in the United States over the age of 18.
In May 2021, the FDA issued an emergency use authorization for the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine for anyone over the age of 12.
Vaccines under these emergency use authorizations should be considered safe and effective. There have been rare instancces, approximately 1 in 1,000,000, of a blood clotting disorder reported in people who received the Johnson & Johnson vaccine in the United States or the AstraZeneca vaccine outside the United States. This condition is treatable and occurred primarily in premenopausal women. People concerned about this and other potential side effects should speak to their doctor or a physician before vaccination.
People who have had allergic reactions to vaccines in the past should report this when they get vaccinated. Allergic reactions are uncommon, but those who have had past reactions are advised to monitor for symptoms for 30 minutes after an injection instead of 15. If you have expereinced a severe reaction to a vaccination, such as anaphylaxis, you should speak to your physician about getting vaccinated in a health-care setting, rather than at a mass-vaccination clinic.
As of late April 2021, the CDC recommends that pregnant women receive COVID-19 vaccinations. Women who are pregnant should speak to their physicians prior to vaccination to decide if it is right for them.
How will I know if the coronavirus vaccine I receive was kept cold enough?
All distributors of the Pfizer BioNTech coronavirus vaccine are required to keep detailed storage and use records for every dose of vaccine. If the vaccine becomes too warm for too long, it is destroyed.
Do I need to quarantine after exposure to COVID-19 if I have been vaccinated?
According to new guidance from the CDC, people who have been in close contact with someone who has COVID-19 do not need to quarantine if they have been fully vaccinated. “Fully vaccinated” is defined as a period two or more weeks after the second vaccination with an FDA-authorized vaccine.
I have an egg allergy. Is the coronavirus vaccine safe for me?
Eggs are not used to make the coronavirus vaccine, so it is believed to be safe for people with egg allergies. If you have any kind of severe allergy, you should speak to your doctor before you get the coronavirus vaccine to review potential risks. You may want to get vaccinated in a clinical setting, such as your doctor’s office or a hospital, instead of at a pharmacy or vaccine distribution event.
Does the coronavirus vaccine cause Bell's Palsy?
Some people experienced Bell’s Palsy during the clinical trials for coronvirus vaccines. The number of Bell’s Palsy cases were not statistically higher than those found in the general population, so researchers have not established a clear link between these cases and the vaccines. Bell’s Palsy is a weakness in muscles on one side of the face. In the majority of cases, it is temporary and clears up within a few weeks.
If you have ever experienced a significant reaction to a vaccine, including anaphylaxis, you should speak to your physician before receiving coronavirus vaccines.
Are There Side Effects from the COVID Vaccines? UPDATED MAY 2021
The most common side effect from the three authorized vaccines (Pfizer/BioNTech 2-shot, Moderna 2-shot, Johnson & Johnson 1-shot) is soreness, redness or swelling at the injection site. These symptoms may appear a few hours to one day after injection and typically clear up in 24-48 hours. You should recieve guidance on over-the-counter medicines you can take for the pain. Ice, cold compresses and movement may help to relieve soreness as well.
If pain or redness at the injection site gets worse after 24 hours, you should see a physician.
Following a second injection with the 2-shot Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna vaccines, some people report chills, fatigue, fever, nausea and headaches. These symptoms are a sign that your body is generating an immune response, and they vary greatly from person to person. Some people experience no symptoms at all.
Symptoms should clear up in 48-72 hours. Making surge that you are hydrated the day before a second vaccination, the day of vaccination and the day after vaccination may help to alleviate symptoms. You should also receive guidance on over-the-counter remedies to help manage symptoms.
If your symptoms last for more than 72 hours or if they get worse over time, you should see a physician.
There have been reports of heart inflammation, including myocarditis and pericarditis, in males between the ages of 12 and 39. Symptoms include chest pain, shortness of breath and rapid heartbeat and typically occur within a week of the second dose. Males between the ages of 12 and 39 should watch for these symptoms and report them to a physician. Treatments are available, and most cases are mild.
Males ages 12 to 39 should wait 8 weeks between their first and second doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech or Moderna coronavirus vaccines to further reduce the risk of heart inflammation, unless they have compromised immune systems. Those with compromised immune systems should follow a vaccination schedule of 3 weeks between Pfizer/BioNTech shots and 4 weeks between Moderna shots.
In rare cases, people have experienced allergic reactions to COVID-19 vaccines. Allergic reactions will take place within 30 minutes of injection, and anyone concerned about an allergic reacton should feel free to wait at the vaccination site for 30 minutes instead of 15.
If you have had anaphylaxis from any previous vaccination, please inform whoever is administering the vaccine before your recieve your shot. You may want to get vaccinated in a hospital or clinic rather than a mass-vaccination site if you have experienced anaphylaxis in the past.
In very rare cases, approximately 1 in 1 million, people who received the Johnson & Jonson vaccine in the United States later experienced a blood clotting disorder. At this time, the relationship between the vaccine and the condition is unknown.
If you experience severe headaches, leg pain, abdominal pain or shortness of breath within three weeks of receiving the Johnson & Johnson vaccine, you should seek medical treatment immediately. People with concerns about this vaccine should speak to a health care provider to determine which vaccine is best for them.
I have a compromised immune system. Should I get the vaccine? UPDATED FEBRUARY 2022
The United States Centers for Disease Control recommends vaccination for all immunocompromised people, with a preferential recommendation for the Pfizer/BioNTech and Moderna two-dose vaccines, followed by boosters. Severely immunocompromised individuals may need boosters more frequently than the general public. You should speak with a health care professional to determine your booster needs.
Please note that there are no changes to the initial vaccination schedule for immunocompromised people in the Centers for Disease Control February 2022 update. People with weakened immune systems should get their initial doses of the Pfizer/BioNTech vaccine 3 weeks apart, and their doses of the Moderna vaccine 4 weeks apart.
I have Giullian-Barré Syndrome. Is the COVID vaccine safe for me?
People with Giullian-Barré Syndrome should talk to their healthcare providers and review their medical history before getting the COVID vaccine. If you have a history of severe reactions to vaccines, including neurological reactions or anaphylaxis, you may want to avoid getting the COVID vaccine at this time. Your healthcare provider can help you make the best choice based on your medical history.
I have severe allergies. Should I get the coronavirus vaccine?
There were two cases of allergic reactions to the Pfizer BioNTech vaccine on the first day it was offered in the United Kingdom. Both affected individuals had a history of severe allergies including anaphylaxis.
Health officials in the United Kingdom and in the United States have advised people with a history of severe allergies to discuss getting the vaccine with their healthcare providers. Pfizer and BioNTech are currently investigating those allergic reactions, which were not life-threatening, to try and understand why they occurred.